International pictorialism originated in late-nineteenth century Europe. Prompted by the ever-growing group of amateur photographers, pictorialism emphasizes the painterly quality of photographs. In China, photographers such as Lang Jingshan and Liu Bannong may have become familiar with international pictorialism through foreign publications circulating in Chinese coastal cities, such as “Photograms of the Year.” In the US, Alfred Stieglitz, as well as the Photo-Secession group he founded in New York in 1902, fostered the development of international pictorialism before WWI.
- “The Photo-Secession”. The Alfred Stieglitz Collection. Accessed November 26, 2020, https://archive.artic.edu/stieglitz/the-photo-secession/.
- Fineman, Mia. “Kodak and the Rise of Amateur Photography”. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, October 2004. Accessed November 25,2020, https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/kodk/hd_kodk.htm.
- Hostetler, Lisa. “Pictorialism in America”. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, October 2004. Accessed November 25, 2020, https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/pict/hd_pict.htm.
- Hostetler, Lisa. “Alfred Stieglitz (1864–1946) and American Photography”. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, October 2004. Accessed November 25, 2020, https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/pict/hd_pict.htm.
- Liu, Mia Yinxing. “The ‘Emulative’ Portraits: Lang Jingshan’s Photography of Zhang Daqian”. Trans-Asia Photography Review (2015) 6(1). Accessed April 26, 2020, http://hdl.handle.net/2027/spo.7977573.0006.106.
- Kent, Richard K. “Early Twentieth-Century Art Photography in China: Adopting, Domesticating, and Embracing the Foreign”. Local Culture/ Global Photography 3 (2) (Spring 2013). Accessed November 24, 2020, http://hdl.handle.net/2027/spo.7977573.0003.204.