In 1905, Alfred Stieglitz and Edward J. Steichen opened the Little Galleries of the Photo-Secession at 291 Fifth Avenue in New York. The gallery, also known as 291, became a center for the exhibition of modernist paintings in the 1910s. The gravitation towards modernism is seen in Stieglitz’s own artistic development. While his earlier piece Winter-The Fifth Avenue (1893) feature an overall painterly quality, his later work Old and New New York (1910) evince the tendency towards abstraction and machine aesthetics that had preoccupied early-twentieth-century modernist painters.
- “New York Views.” The Alfred Stieglitz Collection. Accessed December 17, 2020. https://archive.artic.edu/stieglitz/new-york-views/
- Lisa Mintz Messing. “Georgia O’keefe.” The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin (Fall 1984). 3–58.
- James Voorhies. “Alfred Stieglitz (1864–1946) and His Circle.” The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Accessed December 17, 2020. https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/stgl/hd_stgl.htm